One Person Company (OPC) Registration in India
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One Person Company (OPC) registration is a popular choice among entrepreneurs seeking limited liability and a distinct legal identity. OPC is a unique business structure that allows a single individual to operate as a company, providing the advantages of limited liability while retaining full control. In an OPC, the individual serves as both the director and shareholder, blending the benefits of a sole proprietorship with the legal protections of a private limited company.
At TaxClue, we specialize in simplifying the OPC registration process, ensuring entrepreneurs can navigate the complexities of legal formalities seamlessly. Our experienced team is committed to assisting you at every step, from document preparation to filing, providing expert guidance to make informed decisions about your OPC setup.
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Introduction to One Person Company (OPC)
One Person Company (OPC) registration in India was introduced under the Companies Act of 2013, allowing a single individual to establish a company and enjoy the combined benefits of a sole proprietorship and a traditional company structure. This concept was introduced with the implementation of the Companies Act in 2013.
The primary objective behind creating one-person companies was to foster entrepreneurship and promote the formalization of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). According to Section 2(62) of the Companies Act 2013, a company can be formed with just one director and one member, and interestingly, these roles can be held by the same individual.
Before proceeding with OPC registration, it’s essential to understand the specific eligibility criteria and limitations governing its formation. The Companies Act outlines clear requirements to ensure that the individual establishing the OPC meets the necessary criteria:
1. Natural Person and Indian Citizen: Only a natural person who is an Indian citizen can establish an OPC. Legal entities like companies or LLPs cannot create an OPC.
2. Resident in India: The promoter must be a resident in India, meaning they should have lived in India for at least 182 days during the previous calendar year.
3. Minimum Authorized Capital: The OPC must have a minimum authorized capital of Rs 1,00,000, the amount specified in the company’s capital clause during registration.
4. Nominee Appointment: The promoter must appoint a nominee during the OPC’s incorporation. This nominee would become a member of the OPC in the event of the promoter’s death or incapacity.
5. Restrictions on Certain Businesses: OPCs cannot engage in financial activities like banking, insurance, or investments.
6. Conversion to Private Limited Company: If the OPC’s paid-up share capital exceeds 50 lakhs or its average annual turnover surpasses 2 Crores, it must be converted into a private limited company to comply with regulatory requirements for larger companies.
It's important to note that an individual can establish only one OPC, and an OPC cannot have a minor as its member.
Advantages of One Person Company (OPC)
OPCs offer several advantages:
- Legal Status: OPCs have a separate legal entity status, protecting the founder from personal liability for company losses.
- Easy Fundraising: Being a private company, OPCs find it easier to raise funds through venture capitalists, angel investors, and banks compared to proprietorship firms.
- Reduced Compliance: OPCs enjoy exemptions from certain compliance requirements under the Companies Act, 2013, simplifying administrative obligations.
- Simple Incorporation: OPCs can be established with just one member and one nominee, with no minimum paid-up capital requirement, simplifying the incorporation process.
- Efficient Management: With a single person managing the OPC, decision-making is swift, leading to efficient company management without conflicts or delays.
- Perpetual Succession: OPCs maintain perpetual succession, ensuring the company’s continuity even with only one member.
Disadvantages of OPC
Despite their advantages, OPCs have limitations:
- Suitable for Small Businesses: OPCs are primarily suitable for small-scale businesses as they can only have one member, limiting their ability to raise additional capital as the business expands.
- Restrictions on Business Activities: OPCs are restricted from engaging in certain activities, such as non-banking financial investments and charitable objectives.
- Ownership and Management: OPCs may lack a clear distinction between ownership and management, as the sole member can also be the director, potentially leading to ethical concerns or conflicts of interest.
Several essential documents must be prepared and submitted to the Registrar of Companies (ROC) during the OPC registration process:
- Memorandum of Association (MoA)
- Articles of Association (AoA)
- Nominee’s consent, along with their PAN card and Aadhaar card, submitted via Form INC-3.
- Proof of Registered Office
- A declaration by a qualified professional certifying that all necessary legal compliances have been adhered to.
Registration of One Person Company (OPC) in India
In India, OPC registration is facilitated through the SPICe+ (Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically Plus) form, replacing the previous application forms for company incorporation. The OPC registration process involves two parts:
Step 1: Obtain a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) for the intended director of the OPC, used for electronically signing crucial documents.
Step 2: Acquire a Director Identification Number (DIN) for the proposed director from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).
Step 3: Apply for name reservation through the MCA portal using Form SPICe+ (Part A), ensuring the chosen name is distinct and does not resemble any existing company or trademark.
Step 4: Draft the Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA) defining the company’s objectives and internal rules.
Step 5: File the necessary forms with the MCA for OPC registration, attaching relevant documents such as MOA, AOA, declarations, proof of the registered office, nominee appointment, and other required documents.
Step 6: Upon approval by the ROC and verification of compliance requirements, the ROC will issue a Certificate of Incorporation, signifying the successful registration of your One Person Company. The PAN number and TAN are generated automatically during incorporation, eliminating the need for separate applications.
Why TaxClue for OPC Registration?
TaxClue is your ideal partner for OPC registration for several compelling reasons. With years of expertise in company registration and a deep understanding of the regulatory landscape, TaxClue simplifies the often complex OPC
Frequently Asked Questions
A One Person Company (OPC) is a type of business structure that allows a single individual to establish a company, enjoying the benefits of limited liability while retaining full control. The individual serves as both the director and shareholder.
To register an OPC in India, the promoter must be a natural person who is an Indian citizen and a resident in India. They should have resided in India for at least 182 days during the previous calendar year.
An OPC must have a minimum authorized capital of Rs 1,00,000, as specified in the company’s capital clause during registration. There is no requirement for a minimum paid-up capital.
Yes, as part of the OPC’s incorporation, you must appoint a nominee. The nominee would become a member of the OPC in the event of your death or incapacity.
Yes, OPCs are restricted from engaging in certain activities, such as banking, insurance, or investments. It’s important to check the specific business activities that are allowed for OPCs.
Some advantages of OPC registration include limited liability, ease of fundraising, reduced compliance requirements, simple incorporation with one member and one nominee, efficient management, and perpetual succession.
Yes, OPCs are primarily suitable for small-scale businesses, as they can only have one member, which limits their ability to raise additional capital as the business expands. Additionally, there may be a lack of clear distinction between ownership and management in OPCs.
Essential documents for OPC registration include the Memorandum of Association (MoA), Articles of Association (AoA), nominee’s consent along with their PAN card and Aadhaar card, proof of registered office, a declaration by a qualified professional certifying legal compliances, and various forms required by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
The registration of an OPC in India is facilitated through the SPICe+ (Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically Plus) form, which involves several steps, including obtaining a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC), acquiring a Director Identification Number (DIN), applying for name reservation, drafting MOA and AOA, filing the necessary forms with the MCA, and obtaining a Certificate of Incorporation
TaxClue is an ideal partner for OPC registration due to its expertise in company registration and a deep understanding of the regulatory landscape. TaxClue simplifies the complex OPC registration process, offering expert guidance and ensuring compliance with all legal requirements.